Blood Transfusion are usually given to a person to increase the ability of the blood to carry oxygen and restore the amount of blood in the body. It also helps in correcting the clotting problems in the human body. The process of transfusions is usually safe; however, sometimes, some people may show adverse reactions.
Following are some of the common reactions that are seen in a person during blood transfusion:
- Fever- There can be a fever due to a reaction occurring in the white blood cells. It may also happen to the chemicals that are being released by the transfused white blood cells. It is the main reason why the hospital in the United States removes the blood cells from the blood that has been transfused after it has been collected.
A person may also feel headaches and back pain after blood transfusion in his body.
- Allergy- There may also be allergic reactions in a person’s body after blood transfusion. These reactions may include widespread rashes, itching, swelling, dizziness, and headache. These are common reactions that may be seen. Some uncommon symptoms may also occur, such as difficulty in breathing, wheezing, and airway obstruction.
If any allergic reaction is seen in a person during blood transmission, the process is stopped immediately, and the person is given an antihistamine. In severe cases of an allergic reaction, hydrocortisone is given to provide relief to the person.
- Overloading Of Fluid- The blood transmission recipients may receive more fluids than the usual quantity that the body can handle. The high amount of fluid may cause swelling, and also, the person may face problems in breathing. It is one of the most common causes of death that occurs from a blood transfusion. Persons with heart disease are more vulnerable to this kind of problem if they are blood transfusion recipients.
The vulnerable persons are given transfusion very slowly and are also monitored very closely during a blood transfusion.
- Injury In Lungs- Another type of reaction seen from a blood transfusion is acute lung injury. It is very rarely seen in a person, which is generally caused due to the antibodies present in the donor’s blood. It may lead to severe problems in a person, such as serious difficulty in breathing.
Blood transfusion is generally done for various reasons or problems faced by a person. Some of these problems or conditions include anemia, pregnancy and child breath complications, and surgical procedures.
Maintaining a safe and effective procedure for blood collection, storage, and the use of the blood that has been donated is essential.
Preparation Before Blood Transfusion
The blood of both the donor and the recipient should be tested before a blood transfusion to find the category of the blood, such as “A+, B+, AB+, O+, etc.” The donor’s blood must be compatible with that of the blood of the recipient before blood transmission.
Blood transfusions are done in a hospital or a doctor’s clinic. The procedure of blood transfusion takes about an hour or two, depending on the amount of blood.
Precautions To Be taken Before Blood Transfusion.
Certain precautions are needed to be taken, and specific guidelines must be adhered to for blood transfusion. Some of the precautions and steps involved in the blood transfusion process are as follows:
- The person donating the blood should be asked to fill up a questionnaire by providing the details of their medical history before donating the blood.
- The hemoglobin level of the donor is checked before being allowed to donate the blood.
- After the collection is over, the blood is then screened and examined to detect any possible infections such as HIB, etc.
- The blood of the donor is being checked with that of the patient’s blood to determine whether the donor’s blood is compatible enough with that of the patient’s blood. It can is determined from the antigen profile of the red blood cell of an individual. Some of the most important antigens are ABO and RH antigens.
Every individual has in themself ABO antigen. It means that their red blood cells may sometimes show antigen A, antigen B, or even both the antigens and even no antigen at all. Similarly, every person is positive or negative for the RH antigen. All these possible antigens can give any of the eight blood types or groups.
- A patient is generally considered fit for the blood transfusion if it’s seen that the blood transmission
- would prove beneficial for the patient. A complete blood count test of the patient is being performed before performing the blood transfusion procedure.
- The blood should be transfused with the help of a tube that should be connected with a needle or a catheter for supplying to the vein.
- It’s essential to determine in advance the amount of blood that needs to be transfused to the patient.
- It’s also essential to keep a close look at the possible reactions that may occur while blood transmission, such as fever, breathing problems, etc. Also, the heart rate and blood pressure should be monitored very closely at blood transfusion.